~ Arbutin – An extract of the Bearberry plant which contains pigmentation and whitening agents. Arbutin protects the skin against damage caused by free radicals and inhibits the formation of melanin pigment.
~Azelaic acid– A naturally occurring dicarboxylic acid that reduces melanin production by inhibiting tyrosinase. It suppresses the proliferation of abnormal melanin producing cells (melanocytes), by reducing the rate of DNA synthesis.
~MAP (Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate) – Inhibits effects on melanogenesis, promotion of collagen synthesis, and prevention of lipid peroxidation. MAP is a phosphate ester and is easily hydrolyzed to ascorbic acid in the skin by enzymes (phosphatase).
~Apple Stem Cells– Derived from a rare Swiss Apple that demonstrate the ability to delay chronological aging.